Lithium ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery, first proposed by chemist M Stanley Whittingham at Exxon in the 1970s. Today lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications.

ADVANTAGES

  1. High specific energy and high load capabilities with Power Cells.
  2. Long cycle and extend shelf-life, maintenance-free.
  3. High capacity, low internal resistance, good coulombic efficiency.
  4. Simple charge algorithm and reasonably short charge times.
  5. Low self-discharge (less than half that of NiCd and NiMH).

LIMITATIONS

  1. Requires protection circuit to prevent thermal runaway if stressed.
  2. Degrades at high temperature and when stored at high voltage.
  3. No rapid charge possible at freezing temperatures (<0°C, <32°F).
  4. Transportation regulations required when shipping in larger quantities.

One of the most successful Li-ion systems is a cathode combination of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC). Also known as lithium-manganese-cobalt-oxide batteries, or NMC, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide batteries are made of several materials common in other lithium iron batteries. These involve a cathode combination of nickel, manganese and cobalt NMC in the same cell optimized for specific power has a capacity of only about 2,000mWh but delivers a continuous discharge current of 20A.

Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)

Like other varieties of lithium-ion batteries, NMC batteries can have either a high specific energy or high specific power. They cannot, however, have both properties. This battery is most common in power tools and in powertrains for vehicles.

The cathode combination ratio is usually one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt, meaning that the raw material cost is lower than for other options, as cobalt on its own can be quite expensive. According to Battery university, this battery is also commonly preferred for electric vehicles due to its very low self-heating rate.